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Research Reports

One of the purposes of the Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve is to facilitate research and monitoring at Padilla Bay to enhance conservation and management of the nation's estuaries, in particular greater Puget Sound and other estuaries in the Pacific Northwest. The Padilla Bay Reserve assists the dissemination of this research and monitoring by publishing a Reprint Series and a Technical Report Series.

The Reprint Series includes research reports, out of print agency reports, and student reports dealing with the Padilla Bay estuary. Reprints are reprinted without revision or editing. Final reports for research grants should be treated as unpublished data and should not be cited without the permission of the author(s).

The Technical Report Series (below) includes articles, reports of research projects, data reports, bibliographies, and reviews dealing with the Padilla Bay estuary.

A bibliography of publications and reports on Padilla Bay was published in 1998 as Technical Report No. 19 and is available in PDF: 1998 Bibliography.

The Padilla Bay Site Profile provides an overview of the existing state of knowledge about the ecology of Padilla Bay through a review of the literature.

Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Technical Report Series

1
Bulthuis, D. A. 1989. Bibliography of reports on Padilla Bay, Washington.
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Bulthuis, D. A. 1991. Distribution of habitats and summer standing crop of seagrasses and macroalgae in Padilla Bay, Washington.
Riggs, S. 1992. Distribution of Spartina alterniflora in Padilla Bay, Washington, in 1991.
Bulthuis, D. A. and T. Shaw. 1992. Acute toxicity of intertidal sediments from Padilla Bay, Washington, to the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius.
Bulthuis, D. A. 1996. Suspended sediments in Joe Leary Slough, a North Puget Sound coastal stream draining an agricultural watershed.
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Bulthuis, D. A. 1993. Padilla Bay bibliography, 1993.
Bulthuis, D. A. and B. A. Scott 1993. Effects of application of glyphosate on cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, and adjacent native salt marsh vegetation in Padilla Bay, Washington.
Bulthuis, D. A. and T. C. Shaw 1993. Effects of application of glyphosate on the eelgrasses Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in Padilla Bay, Washington.
Bulthuis, D. A. and M. J. Hartman. 1994. Effects of application of glyphosate during summer on epiphytes of the eelgrasses Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in Padilla Bay, Washington.
Bulthuis, D. A. 1993. Review of water quality data in the Padilla Bay/Bay View watershed.
Riggs, S. R. and D. A. Bulthuis. 1994. Estimated net aerial primary productivity and monitoring of selected characteristics of Spartina alterniflora in Padilla Bay, Washingon, April 1992-May 1993.
Merril, G. G. 1995. The effect of Zostera japonica on the growth of Zostera marina in their shared transitional boundary.
Riggs, S. R. and D. A. Bulthuis. 1995. Effectiveness of a wiper application of glyphosate on Spartina alterniflora in Padilla Bay, Washington.
Bulthuis, D. A. and A. M. Conrad. 1995. Swinomish Channel and Padilla Bay: surface currents during flood tide and water quality.
Bulthuis, D. A. and A. M. Conrad. 1995. Guemes Channel and Padilla Bay: surface currents during flood tide.
Bulthuis, D.A. and W.C. Anderson. 1996. Survey for pesticides on the Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Resrve Demonstration Farm, 1993.
18
Bulthuis, D.A. 1997. Padilla Demonstration Farm: Soil salinity and soil nutrients in December, 1996.
19
Bulthuis, D.A. and S. Shull. 1998. Preliminary bibliography of research reports and historical data sets on Padilla Bay, Washington (1998).
20
Hayden, H. S. and J.R. Waaland. 1998. Green tide algae of the Padilla Bay Estuary, Washington.
Ray, G. 1997. Benthic assemblages of the Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Mount Vernon, Washington.
Ray, G. 1997. Benthic assemblages of the Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Mount Vernon, Washington (Appendices).
Hayden, H.S. and J.R. Waaland. 1999. Green macroalgae in estuaries of Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia: a comparison of species assemblages.
Harley, Chris D. G. 1998. Species-specific responses to environmental gradients determine regional scale pattern in an intertidal community.
Dinnel, Paul A. 2000. Padilla Bay molluscs: a review, with emphasis on the bivalves. (Padilla Bay Estuarine Profile: Contribution No. 1)
O'Connor, Mary, M. Wonham, C. Harley. 2001. Quantifying the impacts of an invader: The Asian mud snail Batillaria attramentaria on the mud flats of Padilla Bay, Wa.
Riggs, S.R. 2003. Monitoring for invasive crabs in seagrass habitat in the Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Skagit County, Washington.
Bulthuis, Douglas A. 2013. Science presentation abstracts. Presented at The Science and Management of Zostera japonica in Washington: A Meeting for State Agencies, June 18-19, 2013, Lacey, Washington.

Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series

No. 1:Jeffrey, R. 1976. A preliminary inventory of the biota of Padilla Bay. [Jeffrey, R. 1976. A preliminary inventory of the biota of Padilla Bay. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 38 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 1.]
No. 2:Cassidy, P.M. and G.L McKeen. 1985. Padilla Bay baseline water quality record. [Cassidy, P.M. and G.L. McKeen. 1985. Padilla Bay baseline water quality record. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 472 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 2.]
No. 3:Dinnel, P.A., R.O. McMillan, D.A. Armstrong, T.C. Wainwright, A.J. Whiley, R. Burge and R. Bumbarner. 1986. Padilla Bay Dungeness Crab, Cancer magister, habitat study. [Dinnel, P.A., R.O. McMillan, D.A. Armstrong, T.C. Wainwright, A.J. Whiley, R. Burge and R. Bumbarner. 1986. Padilla Bay Dungeness Crab, Cancer Magister, habitat study. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 78 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 3.]
No. 4:Granger, T. and M. Burg. 1986. Plant communities of a salt marsh in Padilla Bay, Washington. [Granger, T. and M. Burg. 1986. Plant communities of a salt marsh in Padilla Bay, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 14 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 4.]
No. 5:Wissmar, R.C. 1986. Definition of the origins and fates of organic nitrogen in food webs of Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. [Wissmar, R.C. 1986. Definition of the origins and fates of organic nitrogen in food webs of Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 16 pp plus 4 tables & 2 figures. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 5.]
No. 6:Webber, H.H., T.F. Mumford Jr., and J. Eby. 1987. Remote sensing inventory of the seagrass meadow of the Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Areal extent and estimation of biomass. [Webber, H.H., T.F. Mumford Jr., and J. Eby. 1987. Remote sensing inventory of the seagrass meadow of the Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 70 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 6.]
No. 7:Wiggins, J. and E. Binney. 1987. A baseline study of the distribution of Spartina alterniflora in Padilla Bay. [Wiggins, J. and E. Binney. 1987. A baseline study of the distribution of Spartina alterniflora in Padilla Bay. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 28 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 7.]
No. 8:Ruckelshaus, M.H. 1988. Effects of habitat characteristics on mussel growth in Padilla Bay, Washington. [Ruckelshaus, M.H. 1988. Effects of habitat characteristics on mussel growth in Padilla Bay, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 53 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 8.]
No. 9:Simenstad, C.A., J.R. Cordell, R.C. Wissmar, K.L. Fresh, S.L. Schroder, M. Carr, G. Sandborn, and M. Burg. 1988. Assemblage structure, microhabitat distribution, and food web linkages of epibenthic crustaceans in Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Washington. [Simenstad, C.A., J.R. Cordell, R.C. Wissmar, K.L. Fresh, S.L. Schroder, M. Carr, G. Sandborn, and M. Burg. 1988. Assemblage structure, microhabitat distribution, and food web linkhages of epibenthic crustaceans in Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 60 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 9.]
No. 10:Thom, R.M. 1988. Benthic primary production in the eelgrass meadow at the Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Washington. [Thom, R.M. 1988. Benthic primary production in the eelgrass meadow at the Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 33 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 10.]
No. 11:Mayer, J.R. 1989. Potential impact of agricultural pesticide runoff on Zostera marina and Zostera japonica (eelgrass communities) in Padilla Bay, Washington. [Mayer, J.R. 1989. Potential impact of agricultural pesticide runoff on Zostera marina and Zostera japonica (eelgrass communities in Padilla Bay, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 42 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 11.]
No. 12:Entranco Engineers. 1989. Padilla Bay hydrologic study. [Entranco Engineers. 1989. Padilla Bay hydrologic study. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 29 pp plus 38 pp of appendices. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 12.]
No. 13:Thom, R.M. 1989. Plant standing stock and productivity on tidal flats in Padilla Bay, Washington: a temperate north Pacific estuarine embayment. [Thom, R.M. 1989. Plant standing stock and productivity on tidal flats in Padilla Bay, Washington: a temperate north Pacific estuarine embayment. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 37 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 13.]
No. 14:Dinnel, P.A., J.A. Armstrong, R.R. Lauth, K. Larsen, D.A. Armstrong, and S. Sulkin. 1990. Fish predation on Dungeness crab in Padilla Bay, Washington. [Dinnel, P.A., J.A. Armstrong, R.R. Lauth, K. Larsen, D.A. Armstrong, and S. Sulkin. 1990. Fish predation on Dungeness crab in Padilla Bay, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 69 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 14.]
No. 15:Thom, R.M., B. Miller and M. Kennedy. 1991. Temporal pattern of grazers and vegetation in a temperate seagrass system. [Thom, R.M., B. Miller and M. Kennedy. 1991. Temporal pattern of grazers and vegetation in a temperate seagrass system. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 28 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 15.]
No. 16:Gardiner, W.W. 1992. Sea surface films: deposition and toxicity in intertidal habitats. [Gardiner, W.W. 1992. Sea surface films: deposition and toxicity in intertidal habitats. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 16.]
No. 17:Wiggins, J.R. 1992. The effect of landfill leachate from Padilla Bay on the abundance of epibenthic harpacticoid copepods and sediment toxicity measured with the amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxinius abronius). [Wiggins, J.R. 1992. The effect of landfill leachate from Padilla Bay on the abundance of epibenthic harpacticoid copepods and sediment toxicity measured with the amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxinius abronius). Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 58 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 17.]
No. 18:McMillan, R. O. 1991. Abundance, settlement, growth and habitat use by juvenile Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, in inland waters of northern Puget Sound, Washington. [McMillan, R.O. 1991. Abundance, settlement, growth and habitat use by juvenile Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, in inland waters of northern Puget Sound, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 53 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 18.]
No. 19:Bernhard, A. 1993. Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in Padilla Bay. [Bernhard, A. 1993. Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in Padilla Bay. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 73 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 19.]
No. 20:Pawlak, B. 1994. Analysis of the policies and management practices of Washington State agencies as they pertain to the seagrasses, Zostera marina and Zostera japonica. [Pawlak, B. 1994. Analysis of the policies and management practices of Washington State agencies as they pertain to the seagrasses, Zostera marina and Zostera japonica. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 20 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 20.]
No. 21:Shaw, T. 1994. Temporal, diel, and vertical distribution variation of epiphyte grazers in a temperate eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) system. [Shaw, T. 1994. Temporal, diel, and vertical distribution variation of epiphyte grazers in a temperate eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) system. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 61 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 21.]
No. 22:Riggs, S. R. 1995. The effect of exposure to environmental normoxia and hypoxia on photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll concentration in intertidal Zostera marina leaves. [Riggs, S.R. 1995. The effect of exposure to environmental normoxia and hypoxia on photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll concentration in intertidal Zostera marina leaves. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 74 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 22.]
No. 23:Shaw, M. C. 1995. Diel predator-prey interactions between shiner perch and Caprella californica, relative to caprellid distribution upon Zostera marina. [Shaw, M.C. 1995. Diel predator-prey interactions between shiner perch and Caprella californica, relative to caprellid distribution upon Zostera marina. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 60 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 23.]
No. 24:Thompson, K. M. 1995. Bacterial production and consumption in microlayer and subsurface waters of Padilla Bay, Washington. [Thompson, K.M. 1995. Bacterial production and consumption in microlayer and subsurface waters of Padilla Bay, Washingtion. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 82 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 24.]
No. 25:Palm S. V. 1996. Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) utilization of radiolabelled diets composed of phytoplankton or detrital particulates. [Palm, S.V. 1996. Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) utilization of radiolabelled diets composed of phytoplankton or detrital particulates. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 76 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 25.]
No. 26:Rutherford, Nicolle R. 1997. Nitrogen exchange between the sediments and water column in vegetated and non-vegetated sites in Padilla Bay, Washington. [Rutherford, Nicolle R. 1997. Nitrogen exchange between the sediments and water column in vegetated and non-vegetated sites in Padilla Bay, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 40 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 26.]
No. 27:Lehto, Jason A. 1997. The use of protists and detritus as a diet for the first zoeal stage of the brachyuran crabs Cancer magister and Hemigrapsus oregonensis. [Lehto, Jason A. 1997. The use of protists and detritus as a diet for the first zoeal stage of the brachyuran crabs Cancer magister and Hemigrapsus oregonensis. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 81 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 27.]
No. 28:Muller-Parker, Gisèle, and Emily R. Peele. 1998. Seasonal control of phytoplankton growth by anthropogenic nutrient loading in Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. [Muller-Parker, Gisèle and Emily R. Peele. 1998. Seasonal control of phytoplankton growth by anthropogenic nutrient loading in Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 35 pp plus 9 tables & 60 figures. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 28.]
No. 29:DeLorenzo, Amy. 1999. A study of Phyllaplysia taylori in the eelgrass ecosystem of Padilla Bay. [DeLorenzo, Amy. 1999. A study of Phyllaplysia taylori in the eelgrass ecosystem of Padilla Bay. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Resarch Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 88 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 29.]
No. 30:Giver, Karen. 1999. Effects of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum on native marine communities in northern Puget Sound, Washington. [Giver, Karen. 1999. Effects of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum on native marine communities in northern Puget Sound, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 30.]
No. 31:Speidel, Markus G. 1999. Non-linear response of the brown seaweed Fucus gardneri to the intensity of disturbance reveals a density threshold. [Speidel, Markus G. 1999. Non-linear response of the brown seaweed Fucus gardneri to the intensity of disturbance reveals a density threshold. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 43 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 31.]
No. 32:Riordan, Timothy J. Jr. 1999. Assessing the extent and potential for further invasion of Spartina anglica into Puget Sound salt marshes and mudflats. [Riordan, Timothy J. Jr. 1999. Assessing the extent and potential for further invasion of Spartina anglica into Puget Sound salt marshes and mudflats. Washington State Depertment of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 18 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 32.]
No. 34:Shull, Suzanne. 2000. Mapping seagrass meadows of Padilla Bay, Washington, using a 1996 compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI) dataset. [Shull, Suzanne. 2000. Mapping seagrass meadows of Padilla Bay, Washington using a 1996 compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI) dataset. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 76 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 34.]
No. 35:Simenstad, Charles A., Jeffrey R. Cordell, Kurt L. Fresh, and Mark Carr. 1995. Trophic linkages from epibenthic crustaceans in littoral flat habitats: Seasonal and regional comparisons. [Simenstad, Charles A., Cordell, Jeffrey R., Fresh, Kurt L., and Mark Carr. 1995. Trophic linkages from epibenthic crustaceans in littoral flat habitats: Seasonal and regional comparisons. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 51 pp plus 28 figures. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 35.]
No. 36:Fresh, Kurt Leigh. 1979. Distribution and abundance of fishes occurring in the nearshore surface waters of northern Puget Sound, Washington. [Fresh, Kurt Leigh. 1979. Distribution and abundance of fishes occurring in the nearshore surface waters of northern Puget Sound, Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology, Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve: Mount Vernon, Washington. 120 pp. Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Reprint Series No. 36.]